Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 431, March/April 2001, p. 45-47.
The Aizu feudal domain in central Japan was one of the centres defending the Tokugawa Shogunate against the pro-emperor forces during the Boshin War at the beginning of the Meiji Restoration. Some women in Aizu-wakamatsu, the capital of the domain, took up arms to fight against the invading army. This essay presents these loyal efforts of the women of the Nakano, Shinbo and Yamamoto families. The domain, however, surrendered to the Meiji army in November 1868.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 429, November/December 2000, p. 58-60.
In early October 1868, twenty members of the White Tiger Brigate of teenagers who had been fighting for their feudal domain of Aizu in northeastern Japan against the pro-emperor forces took their own lives when they mistakenly thought that their domain castle had fallen to the emperor's soldiers.

Canadian Chinese Times (Edmonton, Canada), weekly community newspaper, 11 April 2002, p. 9.
Chinese characters were invented to be written vertically. CSS3, with the support of MS Internet Explorer, can display Chinese text vertically according to Chinese tradition.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 437, Autumn 2002, p. 46-48.
The treaty that concluded the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 was negotiated and signed in the Shunpanro (Chun fan lou) hotel in Shimonoseki city, Japan. In August 2001 the Gardener had the privilege of a one-night stay in the VIP guest room of present-day Shunpanro which is renowned for its puffer fish sashimi. The legacy of this War is still evident today.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 428, September/October 2000, pp. 38-40.
Visiting in 2000 the Toshodaiji Buddhist monastery in Nara, Japan, the Gardener was most pleased to view for the first time blossoming lotus, an aquatic plant the seeds of which can germinate and grow even after over 1,000 years in soil. I dedicate this essay to her.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 417, September 1999, pp.37-40.
Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai who fought against the Yuan armies during their invasions of Japan in the 13th century, commissioned a painting scroll set that he dedicated to Shinto dieties.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 414, June 1999, pp.10-12.
On the Mongol invasions of Japan and the legend of the divine wind "Kamikaze".

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 402, June 1998, pp.15-17.
On the siege of Weihaiwei, February 1895, in the Sino-Japanese War and the fate of Ting Yuan.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 388, April 1997, pp. 48-51.
This essay also introduces the history of the Yasukuni Shrine.
For a short illustrated account on this topic in English, see "Yasukuni Shrine Tablet Recalled," The Sampan, issue no. 17, June 1996, p. 15. "The Sampan is an information newsletter published by Headquarters British Forces Hong Kong for garrison personnel and their families."

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 369, September 1995, pp. 53-55.
Take a bird's-eye view of the historic city of Hagi in Yamaguchi Prefecture (formerly the feudal domain of Choshu), southwest Japan. View also the calligraphy of YOSHIDA Shoin, the intellectual martyr for the Meiji Restoration.

Riben yan jiu za zhi (Japan Studies Magazine), no. 359, November 1994, pp. 50-52.
Based on the Gardener's debut essay, this web pictorial focuses on the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 which opened a half-century of most negative Sino-Japanese relations.


The majority of the above essays appear in Riben yan jiu za zhi

published in Taipei by the Institute of Sino-Japanese Relations. Text in Chinese.



From the Gardener: Louis Chor. Canada, December 1996. Updated October 2020.